International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology

Volume 1 Issue 3

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ISSN: 2231-1963

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Article #    Article Title, Authors & Abstract (Vol. 1, Iss. 3, July-2011)       Pages


     Design and Implementation of Sensor Node for Wireless Sensors            1-11

     Network to Monitor Humidity of High-Tech Polyhouse Environment

     B. P. Ladgaonkar and A. M. Pawar

ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensors Network is a novel field shows tremendous application potential. To monitor the environmental parameters of high-tech polyhouse the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) is developed. The heart of this ubiquitous field is the Wireless Sensor Node. Moreover, the field of microcontroller based embedded technology is innovative and more reliable. Therefore, based on an embedded technology and the RF module Zigbee a wireless senor node is designed about highly promising AVR ATmega8L microcontroller and implemented for WSN development.  Recently, the modern agriculturists are demanding sophisticated instrumentation for measurement and control of environmental parameters of the polyhouse. To enhance crop yield one has to provide controlled environment to the crop.  The humidity is important parameter, which plays vital role on the crop yield. Therefore, a Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) is designed and implemented for monitoring of humidity of polyhouse and the results of implementation are interpreted in this paper.


     Embedding Image in Mid Frequency Band Using DWT Technique            12-17

     Amandeep Kaur, Blossom Kaur, Navneet Singh, Sukhdeep Singh, Parneet Kaur

ABSTRACT: As for the ensurement of copyright protection of the cover image and the watermark, we propose a DWT based dual watermarking technique in which blind and non-blind algorithms are used. The binary image and the mid- frequency coefficients of the cover image are used to modify the DWT coefficients of the primary watermark .As some features are embedded in the watermark, the security is increased and it ensures the protection of watermark from any copy attack. For the fulfilment of the purpose a new pseudorandom generator based on the mathematical constant ð has been developed. The unpredictable nature of the embedding process has been ensured by the incorporated randomness of the existing techniques in selecting the location to embed the watermark. Since the watermarked cover image with the signed-logo is subjected to various attacks like, rotation, noising etc, so the results show that it is very robust and has good invisibility.


     Adaptation of Watt’s Indicator Mechanism in Altitude Measurement         18-22

     Arjun Shankar, Arun Kumar. B, Vignesh. V

ABSTRACT: The most important systems being used for the effective and safe operation of an airplane is the Altitude Measurement Systems, a duty carried out by means of an Altimeter. The Altimeter output is affected by the input that is given to it. The input that is used by the Altimeter to show the desired altitude is nothing but the barometric pressure at the height at which the aircraft is travelling in. The barometric pressure is converted to the appropriate altitude by means of either Pitot Tubes or Sensors. The Pitot-tube is being used widely in all commercial airliners. The Pitot-Static systems are extremely susceptible to blockage by foreign bodies in case the aircraft sits on the tarmac for long time. To avoid contamination of the liquid which senses the change in pressure, the pitot-tubes are covered and if this cover is not removed, the pitot-tube gets blocked. Sensors are extremely susceptible to be burdened by ice, and in cases where the heating is not available in the place where the sensors are kept, erratic altitudes may result. It is therefore proposed, theoretically, to make efficient use of a four bar chain mechanism, called the Watt’s Indicator Mechanism, in order to eradicate the effects of blockage by foreign matter and burdening by ice and thereby promoting the effective measurement of Altitude in Airplanes. This mechanism would be able to provide means of measuring altitude if calibrated appropriately.


     Simulation of Cycloconverter Based Three Phase Induction Motor 23-33

     Sandeep Pande, Hashit Dalvi

ABSTRACT: The process machine including provision for variation in load and this is achieved by using three phase cycloconverter based variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) method. To realize this, a demand torque characteristics of a specific process machine is studied. The cycle duration of demand torque characteristics is divided into suitable number of time intervals. The subdivisions of time intervals in form of frequencies are tabulated to simplify design procedure. Change in frequency on particular subdivision results in demand torque of the induction motor. To meet this new frequency hence voltage, three phase cycloconverter is designed. This contribution describes a method used to simulate an induction motor drive using MATLAB software.


     Assessment of Process Parameters in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of           34-40

     M. Chithirai Pon Selvan, N. Mohana Sundara Raju

ABSTRACT: Abrasive waterjet cutting is one of the non-traditional cutting processes capable of cutting wide range of hard-to-cut materials. This paper assesses the influence of process parameters on depth of cut which is an important cutting performance measure in abrasive waterjet cutting of stainless steel. The process variables considered here include traverse speed, abrasive flow rate, standoff distance and water pressure. Experiments were conducted in varying these parameters for cutting stainless steel using abrasive waterjet cutting process. In order to correctly select the process parameters, an empirical model for the prediction of depth of cut in abrasive waterjet cutting of stainless steel is developed using regression analysis. This developed model has been verified with the experimental results that reveal a high applicability of the model within the experimental range used.


     Carrier Frequency Selection of Three-Phase Matrix Converter             41-54

     Pawan Kumar Sen, Neha Sharma, Ankit Kumar Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar,

     Deependra Singh , K.S. Verma

ABSTRACT: Analysis and design of Three-phase Matrix converter for R and R- L load is presented. In this paper Carrier (switching) frequency for matrix converter is defined on behalf of the different values of R and R-L loads. An Indirect space vector modulation (ISVM) technique is used for controlling the switching pattern of matrix converter as operating in rectifier and inverter mode.

  7.      Study of Thermal Stability Behavior of MoN & WN Thin Films in ULSI       55-64
     Ravi Panwar, Asha Dhingra, Dinesh kumar

ABSTRACT: The thermal stability of amorphous MoN & WN thin films was investigated against Cu diffusion. The MoN & WN layers were reactively sputtered of 50 nm by using a different nitrogen flow rates. The phase identification was evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), four probe method and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate that the amorphous 50 nm MoN layer acts as a good diffusion barrier up to 600 °C for Cu metallization and on the other hand  the amorphous WN layer acts as a good diffusion barrier up to 500 °C.

  8.      A Review on Jominy Test and Determination of Effect of Alloying             65-71
     Elements on Hardenability of Steel Using Jominy End Quench Test
     Bhaskar Chandra Kandpal, Agnay Chutani, Amit Gulia, Harsimran,
     Chandan Sadanna

ABSTRACT: Hardenability of steel is defined as the susceptibility of the steel to hardening when quenched, and is related to the depth and distribution of hardness across a cross section. There are various factors which effect hardenability of steels such as austenite grain size, carbon content and alloying elements percentage. Hardenability property is so important that a simple test is essential to measure it. There are various methods to measure hardenability of steel such as Grossman critical diameter method, Jominy end quench test, estimation of hardenability  from chemical composition and Fracture test .The Jominy end-quench test, though inelegant from a scientific standpoint, fills this need. In this paper we discussed about the significance of hardenability and role of Jominy test in measurement of hardenability.

  9.      Steganographic Approach for Hiding Image in DCT Domain 72-78
     Blossom Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Jasdeep Singh

ABSTRACT: Since all the multimedia products are released via internet so it’s an urgent need today to protect the data from malicious attacks. This lead to the research in the area of Digital watermarking which intends to protect the copyright information of the intellectuals. In this paper a DCT based watermarking scheme is proposed which provides higher resistance to image processing attacks such as JPEG compression, noise, rotation, translation etc .In this approach, the watermark is embedded in the mid frequency band of the DCT blocks carrying low frequency components and the high frequency sub band components remain unused. Watermark is inserted by adjusting the DCT coefficients of the image and by using the private key. Watermark can then be extracted using the same private key without resorting to the original image. Performance analysis shows that the watermark is robust.


     Modeling and Simulation of SVC Controller for Enhancement of              79-84

     Power System Stability
     Alisha Banga, S.S. Kaushik

ABSTRACT: This paper will discuss and demonstrate how Static Var Compensator (SVC) has successfully been applied to control transmission systems dynamic performance for system disturbance and effectively regulate system voltage. SVC is basically a shunt connected static var generator whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific power variable; typically, the control variable is the SVC bus voltage. One of the major reasons for installing a SVC is to improve dynamic voltage control and thus increase system load ability. There are the mainly accomplishes work to construct an effective for SVC. Firstly, to design a controller for SVC devices on transmission lines, a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system is modeled. In this paper, simple circuit model of Thyristor Controlled Reactor is simulated.


     A Comprehensive Study of Spectrum Sensing Techniques in 85-97

     Cognitive Radio
     Nisha Yadav, Suman Rathi

ABSTRACT: The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural scarce resource. Radio transmission involves the use of part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Use of spectrum is regulated by government agencies such as Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States. Cognitive radio provides solution to the spectrum scarcity problem. Spectrum sensing for CR is an extremely well researched topic. The biggest challenge related to spectrum sensing is in developing sensing techniques which are able to detect very weak primary user signals while being sufficiently fast and low cost to implement. The various spectrum sensing techniques are: classical spectrum sensing, cooperative spectrum sensing, multiple antenna sensing and MIMO spectrum sensing. This paper provides brief overview of all existing spectrum sensing techniques and comparison is evaluated on the basis of their capacity of detecting the presence of primary users. Among these entire spectrum sensing techniques MIMO spectrum sensing is most efficient as it provides higher capacity, low value of probability of false alarm and high value of probability of detection


     Numerical Studies of Flow Through Annular Curved Diffuser 98-104
     P. K. Sinha, B. Majumdar

ABSTRACT: In the present investigation the distribution of mean velocity, static pressure and total pressure are experimentally studied on an annular curved diffuser of 37.5° angle of turn with an area ratio of 1.284 and centerline length was chosen as three times of inlet diameter. The experimental results then were numerically validated with the help of Fluent and then a series of parametric investigations are conducted with same centre line length and inlet diameter but with different area ratios varying from 1.15 to 3.75. The measurements were taken at Reynolds number 2.15 x 105 based on inlet diameter and mass average inlet velocity. Predicted results of coefficient of mass averaged static pressure recovery (31%) and coefficient of mass averaged total pressure loss (21%) are in good agreement with the experimental results of coefficient of mass averaged static pressure recovery (27%) and coefficient of mass averaged total pressure loss (17%) respectively. Standard k-å model in fluent solver was chosen for validation. From the parametric investigation it is observed that static pressure recovery increases up to an area ratio of 2.86 and between the area ration 2.86 to 3.75, pressure recovery decreases steadily. The coefficient of total pressure loss almost remains constant with the change in area ratio for similar inlet conditions.


     Power Control and Performance Improvement of Infrastructureless         105-110
     Networks Using Directional Antennas
     Nalin Gahlaut, Jaya sharma, Sandip Vijay, S.C. Gupta

ABSTRACT: Infrastructureless networks are the collection of two or more nodes, which are connected in decentralized manner for enabling wireless communication. In infrastructureless networks any node can move at any time so these types of networks require routing protocols those have dynamically changing topology. There are many approaches have been proposed by researchers to improve the system performances of infrastructureless networks. These approaches include the use of directional antennas & power control mechanisms. Actually, directional antennas could be used for transmitting as well as receiving but mostly researchers consider only directional transmission. In this work, a power controlled directional medium access control protocol has been proposed, which enables both directional transmission and reception of data and control packets. The performance of our protocol has been evaluated in heterogeneous infrastructureless scenario and results show that how much performance enhancement can be achieved by using directional antennas and power control mechanism.

  14.      Study of Tribological Parameters on Si Engine – A Case Study             111-117
     H R Mistry, D V Bhatt

ABSTRACT: The tribological consideration in the contacts formed by piston ring assembly have attracted more attention over several decades. @ 13-17% of total frictional losses observed in I.C. engine and 35-50% of total friction losses is due to PRA system. This paper reports a set of experiments were carried out on developed experimental setup at laboratory scale to measure PRA friction of multi cylinder 800 cc engine system indirectly by measurement of power consumption by Strip Method. In experiment the fabricated test rig of 800 cc multi cylinder internal combustion engine system with crank mechanism and without gear box is used. . Crank shaft is coupled with induction motor to drive the engine. A.C. motor with variable frequency drive (VFD) is used to vary the engine speed. The temperatures at different locations are measured by RTD temperature sensors. The experimental results and observations are carried out under different operating conditions in speed ranges from 600 rpm to 2400 rpm.

  15.      Position Control of Servo Motor Using Sliding Mode Fuzzy Controller      118-127
     Ankur Gupta, Aziz Ahmad, Amit Kumar

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the development of different control techniques such as Fuzzy, Sliding mode, and Sliding Mode fuzzy controllers for the servo drive system. Servomotors are widely used in industry due to their relatively low cost and high reliability. To get high performances we have to control the input variable in uncertainties and disturbance. Two cases are discussed for each control scheme. Normal case, parameter variation case, and disturbance case are considered. When fuzzy Controller is implemented in the system. Fuzzy controller gives better performance compared to other controllers but results are ineffective for disturbance case. Sliding mode fuzzy control is then implemented. It is observed that system performance increases when compared to fuzzy control for parameter variation case and for disturbance case which shows the robustness of SMFC. So sliding mode fuzzy control is superior when compared to other controller in terms of control performance. Various control schemes are then compared with each other. Simulations are carried out on MATLAB.

  16.      Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of the            128-137
     Investment Castings Produced by using Expandable Polystyrene Pattern
     Nikhil Yadav, D. B. Karunakar

ABSTRACT: The present study is concerned with the investigation of mechanical properties of A713 alloy castings produced by investment casting process using expandable polystyrene as the pattern material and the plaster of paris as the mould material. Experiments were conducted as per Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Castings were made under the constraint of different process parameters like mould firing temperature, pouring temperature, firing time and mixing of silica sand of different grain fineness numbers to investigate their effects on the surface hardness, impact strength and tensile strength of the final castings. The variations in the trend of the aforesaid mechanical properties were observed and it was deduced out that high mould firing temperature, higher pouring temperature, maximum firing time and high grain fineness number significantly reduce the mechanical properties of A713 alloy castings produced by the above process.

  17.      Design and Noise Analysis of Biquad GIC Notch Filter in            138-144
     0.18 µm CMOS Technology
     Akhilesh Kumar, Bhanu Pratap Singh Dohare, Jyoti Athiya

ABSTRACT: In design of analog circuits not only the gain and speed are important but power dissipation, supply voltage, linearity, noise and maximum voltage swing are also important. Noise limits the minimum signal level that a circuit can process with acceptable quality. Today analog designers constantly deal with the problem of noise because it trades with power dissipation, speed, and linearity.  So in this paper a biquad GIC notch filter is design which provides low noise linearity. In this research, the design and VLSI implementation of active analog filter, based on the Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC) circuit, are presented. The analog features include the filter type (band pass, high pass, low pass or notch), the centre or cut off frequency, and the quality factor. The circuit is then modeled and simulated using the Cadence Design Tools software package. Active filters are implemented using a combination of passive and active (amplifying) components, and require an outside power source. Operational amplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high Q factor, and can achieve resonance without the use of inductors.   This paper presents a new biquad GIC notch filter topology for image rejection in heterodyne receivers and Front End receiver applications. The circuit contains two op-amp, resistors, and capacitor topology for testing purposes. It is implemented with standard CMOS 0.18ìm technology. The circuit consumes 0.54 mW of power with a open loop gain 0dB, 1 dB compression point the linear gain obtained +7.5dBm at 1.1 kHz and 105 degree phase response , from a 1.8V power supply optimum.

  18.      Performance Evaluation of AC Motor Drives Through Matrix Converter    145-161
     - An Indirect Space Vector Modulation Approach
     Pawan Kumar Sen, Neha Sharma, Ankit Kumar Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar,
     Deependra Singh, K.S. Verma

ABSTRACT: This paper addressed to study about the performance of polyphase AC motor drives fed by a three phase matrix converter through an indirect space vector modulation technique under various load conditions. Invention of direct transfer of Power conversion is convenient method to eliminate DC link filter. Most of the Speed control method of AC drive has DC link filter which play an important role in rectifier fed inverter system. MATLAB/Simulink modeling and simulation of three phase induction motor drive fed by a three-phase direct matrix converter feeding a various load conditions is presented. The model has been performed with different switching frequency of matrix converter. The simulation results of various loads condition like rotor speed, stator current, input line current, output phase voltage, etc. are presented in term of waveform to confirm the input currents has sinusoidal and maximum output voltage per input voltage ratio is 0.866 with regard to operation under balance supply voltage.

  19.      A Comparative Study on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Standard            162-170
     Grade HFRSCC Under Confined and Unconfined States
     M Chandrasekhar, M V Seshagiri Rao, Maganti Janardhana

ABSTRACT: Self compacting concrete (SCC), developed by Hajime Okamura, has proved to be an excellent concrete in terms of its compactability, flowability and durability apart from strength studies have proved that the efficiency of the SCC can be further increased by introduction of fibres like steel fibres, glass fibres etc. further enhances their toughness, tensile strength, resistance to crack propagation there by further enhancing the durability properties. The present paper deals with the behaviour of standard grade hybrid fibre reinforced self compacting concrete which is made with a combination of steel and glass fibres in suitable proportion. .It is observed that the confinement of the concrete has increased the 28 days strength from 12.39% to 28.2% for different percentages of confinements and It peak stress and corresponding strain at peak stress increases with increase in percentage confinements. An empirical equation is proposed between E and fck, in the form of E= 5700vfck. Out of the two analytical models were proposed for the stress-strain behaviour of HFRSCC under different confinements it is observed that the model based on Seanz equation is closely agreeing with experimental results.

  20.      Functional and Health Related Analysis in the Discipline of Prosthetics 171-179
     Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood, Ching Yee Yong, Rubita Sudirman, Camallil Omar,
     Kim Mey Chew

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to identify the determinants of patient satisfaction with outcome after a period of wearing prosthesis. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency of average mean 2.39 for lower extremity functional status and average mean 3.44 for health related quality of life. Subjective variables associated with pain were independent predictors of patient satisfaction. Thus, in assessing patient satisfaction, importance of patient-derived subjective assessment of symptoms and function are emphasized. Documenting mechanical stability of the prosthesis is inadequate when reporting follow-up studies and a questionnaires assessing patient satisfaction should be added to provide a better picture of the outcome and results.

  21.     High Transmission Performance of Radio Over Fiber Systems over           180-196
    Traditional Optical Fiber Communication Systems Using Different
    Coding Formats for Long Haul Applications
    Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed, Mohamed M. E. El-Halawany,
    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, Mohamed S. F. Tabbour

ABSTRACT: In the present paper, Radio over fiber (ROF) transport systems have the potential to offer large transmission capacity, significant mobility and flexibility, as well as economic advantage due to its broad bandwidth and low attenuation characteristics. We have investigated parametrically and numerically the high performance of Radio over fiber communication systems over traditional optical communication systems using different coding formats over wide range of the affecting operating parameters. Moreover we have analyzed the transmission bit rates and products per channel based standard single mode fiber made of both silica-doped and plastic materials with using modified Shannon technique in addition to use different coding formats such as Return to Zero (RZ) code, and Non Return to Zero (NRZ) code for ultra long haul transmission applications. We have taken into account the bit error rate (BER) for ROF systems with comparing it with traditional optical fiber communication systems as a  proof for improvement of signal to noise ratio.

    Kshitij Shinghal, Arti Noor, Neelam Srivastava, Raghuvir Singh

ABSTRACT: A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is now widely used in precision agriculture applications. Sensors play an important role in WSN. The measurement of soil pH is arguably the most widely performed test in the chemical laboratory, the use of pH sensitive field-effect transistors (pHFETS) is proposed for remote monitoring of the nutrient solution composition for an agricultural farm soil. The proposed system was formed by a sensor system based on polymeric (PVC) membranes with cross selectivity with time triggered sampling of sensor and its signal conditioning. With the optimized model, th0e pH levels of soil were monitored and the time triggered approach for sampling sensor improved the performance and lifetime of WSN node .The approach appears as a feasible method for the on-line assessment of nutrients and undesired compounds in fertigation solutions.