International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology

Volume 1 Issue 2

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ISSN: 2231-1963

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Article #    Article Title, Authors & Abstract (Vol. 1, Iss. 2, May-2011)       Pages
  1.      Power Quality Issues, Problems, Standards & Their Effects In Industry     1-11
     With Corrective Means
     S.Khalid, Bharti Dwivedi.

ABSTRACT: Latest innovative ideas to make the life easier using the technology depends upon the application of power electronics in turn about power quality. With increasing quantities of non-linear loads being added to electrical systems, it has become necessary to establish criteria for limiting problems from system voltage degradation. This paper presents the power quality problems, issues, related international standard, effect of power quality problem in different apparatuses and methods for its correction, which is actually a technology management. This is important for design engineers and researchers in power quality to know the international standards used for power quality.


     Comparision of AlGaN/GaN and AlGaAs/GaAs Based HEMT Device          12-19

     under Doping Consideration
     Sana Firoz, R.K. Chauhan

ABSTRACT: This paper present the behaviour and characteristics of various parameters of AlGaN/GaN based HEMT under the effect of doping. The impact of n-type doping material in carrier layer of AlGaN/GaN HEMT is significantly observed on threshold voltage, transconductance, maximum drain current, cutoff frequency and capacitance. Introducing the AlGaN instead of AlGaAs produces a very significant effect: Polarization. This causes accumulation of charge carriers easily on low doping. Apart from this the effect of doping is also considered on conventional AlGaAs/GaAs based HEMT. Using this method it can be observed that for the optimum doping the behaviour AlGaN/GaN based HEMT is more useful in terms of high power, high frequency response and lower parasitic capacitance.


     Dynamic Broadcast Routing with Security Enhancement 20-27

     V. Anil Kumar, B.Yakhoob, E.Pradeep

ABSTRACT: Security has become one of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks. Different from the past work on the designs of network security algorithms and system infrastructures, we will propose a dynamic broadcast routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. The simulation results have been verified from the proposed algorithm and it shows the capability of the proposed algorithm.


     Improving security by predicting anomaly user through web mining 28-32

     Mahesh Malviya, Abhinav Jain, Nitesh Gupta

ABSTRACT: The web log data embed much of the user’s browsing behavior. Every visit of internet user is recorded in web server log.  There are many systems that attempt to predict user navigation on the internet through the use of past behavior, preferences and environmental factors. Ensuring the integrity of computer networks, both in relation to security and with regard to the institutional life of the nation in general, is a growing concern. Security and defense networks, proprietary research, intellectual property, and data based market mechanisms that depend on unimpeded and undistorted access, can all be severely compromised by malicious intrusions. We need to find the best way to protect these systems. In addition we need techniques to detect security breaches. There has been much interest on using data mining for counter-terrorism and cyber security applications. For example, data mining can be used to detect unusual patterns, terrorist activities and fraudulent behavior. In addition data mining can also be used for intrusion detection and malicious code detection. Our current research is focusing extensively for intrusion detection.


     Parametric Study of Centrifugal Fan Performance: Experiments and 33-50

     Numerical Simulation

     Om Prakash Singh, T. Sreenivasulu, Rakesh Khilwani, M. Kannan

ABSTRACT: In this paper, effect of geometric parameters of a centrifugal fan with backward- and forward-curved blades has been investigated. Centrifugal fans are used for enhancing the heat dissipation from the IC engine surfaces. In the process, the fan consumes power generated from the engine.  As a first step, an experimental setup was developed and prototypes of fans were made to carry out measurements of flow and power consumed by the fan. The fan mounting setup was such that fan with uniform blades can be tested. Generally, fans have cut blades on the vehicle due to mounting accessories. We describe a patented design of shaft that would enable mounting of fan with uniform blades on the vehicle. Next, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for the above setup and the results are validated with the experimental measurement. Further, parametric studies were carried out to quantify the power coefficient, flow coefficient, efficiency and flow coefficients. The parameters considered in this study are number of blades, outlet angle and diameter ratio. The results suggest that fan with different blades would show same performance under high-pressure coefficient. However, the difference between the performances becomes distinct under low pressure coefficients suggesting that the fan performance testing should not be done on vehicle level where high pressure coefficients is observed due to various resistances in the system. The results show that increase in flow coefficient is accompanied by decrease in efficiency and increase in power coefficient. Effect on the vehicles mileage due to the use of forward and backward fan is also discussed. In summary, this study presents a systematic and reliable strategy to investigate the centrifugal fan performance in automotive applications.


     Gender Recognition using Speech Processing Techniques in Labview 51-63

     Kumar Rakesh, Subhangi Dutta, Kumar Shama

ABSTRACT: Traditionally the interest in voice-gender conversion was of a more theoretical nature rather than founded in real–life applications. However, with the increase in biometric security applications, mobile and automated telephonic communication and the resulting limitation in transmission bandwidth, practical applications of gender recognition have increased many folds. In this paper, using various speech processing techniques and algorithms, two models were made, one for generating Formant values of the voice sample and the other for generating pitch value of the voice sample. These two models were to be used for extracting gender biased features, i.e. Formant 1 and Pitch Value of a speaker. A preprocessing model was prepared in LabView for filtering out the noise components and also to enhance the high frequency formants in the voice sample. To calculate the mean of formants and pitch of all the samples of a speaker, a model containing loop and counters were implemented which generated a mean of Formant 1 and Pitch value of the speaker. Using nearest neighbor method, calculating Euclidean distance from the Mean value of Males and Females of the generated mean values of Formant 1 and Pitch, the speaker was classified between Male and Female. The algorithm was implemented in real time using NI LabVIEW.


     Modeling and Simulation of Blast Wave for Pressure Sensor Design 64-71

     B.S. Chaurasia, S.Tandon, S. Shukla, P. Mishra, Anand Mohan,

     S.K. Balasubramanian

ABSTRACT: In this paper a universal model for pressure waves generated by high energy charge explosives and gunshots is developed for determining the pressure vs. time profile (P-T curve) at a given point in space which is useful for design and characterization of pressure micro sensors and explosives etc. The simulation of the model is carried out through virtual instrumentation (VI) using LabVIEW. The technique used to develop the model, in the present work, is similar to the well known statistical technique of structural equation modeling (SEM).The simulated data is compared with the available experimental data sets in terms of Pearson’s correlation and chi-squared goodness-of-fit test (÷2) and they were found to be in close matching. This work can be extended for modeling and characterization of other types of pressure waves.


     An Estimate of Heuristic Approach to Obtain the Shortest Path for Real 72-80

     Road Public Transport Network.

     Guruprasad Nagaraj, Y S Kumaraswamy

ABSTRACT: Transit systems are public transport systems which moves a large number of passengers to their destinations. Traffic congestion is becoming a serious problem in more and more modern cities; however life would come to a standstill without a proper and effectual transportation system. Finding the optimal transfer locations is essential for providing valuable passenger information in order to support journey planning. Furthermore, using this information makes possible to accelerate general-purpose shortest path algorithms, making transit assignments more efficient. However, determining optimal transfer opportunities in a dense network is not an easy task. Shortest path problems are among the most studied network flow optimization problems, with interesting applications in a range of fields. Route finding is a shortest path problem. This paper proposes a heuristic approach ( minimum tree ) which basically computes the impedance between the source and the destination to compute the shortest path.


     Application of Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm in 81-85

     Engineering Application

     Amit Kr. Yadav, Akhilesh Singh, Abdul Azeem, O.P.Rahi

ABSTRACT: Research on genetic algorithms (GAs) has shown that the initial proposals are incapable of solving hard problems in a robust and efficient way. Usually, for large-scale optimization problems, the execution time of ?rst- generation GAs increases dramatically whereas solution quality decreases. The aim of this paper is to point out the main design issues in tailoring Simulated Annealing and GAs to large-scale optimization problems. In present paper, an objective function is defined with constraints and solved by both the technique i.e., SA and GA. The solution of this problem has shown the superior performance of SA as compared to GA in optimization technique. The problem considered in this paper is in general form and applicable to engineering applications with specific objective function and constraints depending upon the nature of problem to be optimized.


     Security Solutions by Detecting Fraudulent Usage in Wireless Networks 86-98

     A. Sanjeeva Raju , A. Vanitha  , A. Shylaja, A. Ravi Kumar

ABSTRACT: Security research in to wired networks indicates that there are always some weak points in the systems that are hard to predict. This is particularly true for a wireless network, in which open wireless transmission media and low physical-security protection of mobile devices pose additional challenges for prevention-based approaches and detection-based approaches. Sensor network security mechanisms can be divided into two categories: communication protocols and key management architectures. Communication protocols deal with the cryptographic algorithms used to achieve availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authentication. Key management architectures handle the complexities of creating and distributing keys used by communication protocols. In this we explore Taxonomy of security solutions, Taxonomy of key distributing schemes, Detecting Computer and Network Misuse, Monitoring misuse through expert systems, Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Using Mobility Profiles of Public Transportation Users, How to Increase Security in Mobile Networks by Anomaly Detection, The Baye’s Decision Rule.


     Optimization of Resonance Frequency of Circular Patch Antenna at 99-106

     5 GHz using Particle Swarm Optimization

     Falguni Raval, Jagruti Makwana

ABSTRACT: The microstrip antenna is small in size, simpler and less expensive to manufacture. They are more compatible than reflector antennas with printed-circuit technology. The microstrip patch antenna is a type of antenna that is thin, and has easy manufacturability, which provides a great advantage over traditional antennas. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been introduced to the electromagnetic community for few years. In this paper PSO has been used for optimization of resonant frequency of circular probe-fed patch antenna. The investigation is made at a microwave frequency of 5 GHz. This Optimization problem has two variables which are height of dielectric substrate (h) and radius of the circular patch (a). The PSO algorithm is developed using ‘Turbo C’.In order to verify the PSO algorithm, the Rosenbrock function is used as a performance test problem.


     Design of Energy Aware Air Pollution Monitoring System Using WSN 107-116

     Sonal. A. Mishra, Dhanashree S. Tijare , G. M. Asutkar

ABSTRACT: The paper presents Wireless sensor network system used to monitor and control the air quality in Nagpur city, India. Environmental air pollution monitoring system that measures, RSPM (Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter), NOx, and SO2 are proposed.  The traditional air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Pollution Control Department, is extremely expensive. Analytical measuring equipment is costly, time and power consuming, and can seldom be used for air quality reporting in real time. Wireless Sensor Networks are a new and very challenging research field for embedded system design automation, as their design must enforce stringent constraints in terms of power and cost. Wireless Sensor Network is a fast evolving technology having a number of potential applications in various domains of daily-life, such as structural and environmental monitoring, medicine, military surveillance, condition based maintenance etc. A WSN is composed of a large number of sensor nodes that are usually deployed either inside a region of interest or very close to it. WSN nodes are low-power embedded devices consisting of processing and storage components (a processor connected to a RAM and/or flash memory) combined with wireless RF transceiver and some sensors/actuators. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently in use. Several sensor nodes, which measures pollutants information, were uniformly deployed in the networks to create sensing phenomena. The simulation results consist of the scenario generated and x and y co-ordinates of the nodes from the gateway by using Network Simulator (NS-2.33). For better power management we used low power strategies and hierarchical routing protocol in wireless air pollution system and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.


      A Reminiscent Study of Nature Inspired Computation  117-125

      Shilpi Gupta, Shweta Bhardwaj, Parul Kalra Bhatia

ABSTRACT: Nature in itself is the best example to solve problems in an efficient and effective manner. During the past few decades, researchers are trying to create computational methods that can help human to solve complex problems. This may be achieved by transferring knowledge from natural systems to engineered systems. Nature inspired computing techniques such as swarm intelligence, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, DNA computing, membrane computing and artificial immune system have helped in solving complex problems and provide optimum solution. Parallel, dynamic, decentralized, asynchronous and self organizing behaviour of nature inspired algorithms are best suited for soft computing applications. This paper is a comprehensive survey of existing nature inspired techniques and their applications.


      Web Information Recuperation from Strewn Text Resource Systems  126-137

      Anil Agrawal, Mohd. Husain, Raj Gaurang Tiwari, Suneel Vishwakarma

ABSTRACT: The Internet has become a vast information source in recent years and can be considered as the world's largest digital library. To help ordinary users find desired data in this library, many search engines have been created. Each search engine has a corresponding database that defines the set of documents that can be searched by the search engine. Usually, an index for all documents in the database is created and stored in the search engine. For each term which can represent a significant word or a combination of several (usually adjacent) significant words, this index can identify the documents that contain the term quickly. Frequently, the information needed by a user is stored in the databases of multiple search engines. As an example, consider the case when a user wants to find papers in a subject area. It is likely that the desired papers are scattered in a number of publishers and/or universities databases. Text data in the Internet can be partitioned into many databases naturally. Efficient retrieval of desired data can be achieved if we can accurately predict the usefulness of each database, because with such information, we only need to retrieve potentially useful documents from useful databases. For a given query ‘q’ the usefulness of a text database is defined to be the no. of documents in the database that are sufficiently relevant to the query ‘q’. In this paper we propose new approaches for database selection and documents selection. In the first part of our work we present an algorithm DBSEL for database selection. This algorithm selects those databases from no. of databases which contain query ‘q’. This algorithm test each database with its documents stored in it. If any document of database contains the query ‘q’ at least one time then we select that database. If all the documents of database does not contains the query ‘q’ then that database will not be selected. In the second part of our work we present an algorithm HighRelDoc for documents selection. This algorithm search all the selected databases and select only those documents from each database in which the query ‘q’ occurs at least one time. After that this algorithm ranks all the selected documents according to the no. of occurrence of query ‘q’ in descending order. Finally this algorithm returns the top ‘n’ most relevant documents from the sorted list of documents for any positive integer ‘n’.


      Syllable based Indian Language Text To Speech System  138-143

      Sanghamitra Mohanty

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Text-To-Speech System for four of the Indian Languages namely, Hindi, Odiya, Bengali and Telegu. In this system we have taken care of the articulation as well as co-articulation system. Earlier we have developed the Text-To-Speech (TTS) system for Odiya and Hindi. For this we have selected the phonetic units of the languages from many spoken vocabulary and then have concatenated the appropriate phones to get the TTS systems. This has inherited the problem of concatenation junctions and time delay in concatenating larger units in case of generating polysyllables. To overcome these problems we have made the syllable based concatenation of the speech units for the Odiya TTS system. Observing the success we have tried this for the other three languages like Hindi, Bengali and Telegu as people of these languages are available with us in our place of research.


      Graphical Scheme for Determination of Market Clearing Price using  144-150

      Quadratic Bid Functions

      Tanay Joshi, Gagan Uberoi.

ABSTRACT:  Market clearing price (mcp) calculation is one of the most important functions of a power pool operator. Many existing power pools use a linear bid function received from the generators and the consumers for the computation of market clearing price. Although quadratic bid functions are more informative and accurate, they are not generally used, as the process of computing the market clearing price becomes more complicated. In this paper the final market clearing price and the schedules of available generators and loads are calculated using quadratic bid functions with the help of a simple iterative scheme coded in MATLAB.


      Design and Simulation of a Dual Band Gap Coupled Annular Ring  151-158

      Microstrip Antenna

      Shuchita Saxena, B.K. Kanaujia

ABSTRACT: The bandwidth enhancement technique using coplanar parasitic element is presented in this paper. This paper presents the analysis of gap coupled annular ring microstrip antenna. The proposed antenna is designed to operate at 6.2 GHz. Details of the proposed antenna and measured results are presented and discussed. The various parameters of the patch antenna are calculated and the antenna impedance is matched to 50 ohm of coaxial feed. The simulated impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 4.8% for lower band (5.07-5.32 GHz) and 2.13% for higher band (6.05-6.18 GHz).


      Strategies & Methodologies for Low Power VLSI Designs: A Review  159-165

      Kanika Kaur,  Arti Noor

ABSTRACT: Low power has emerged as a principal theme in today’s world of electronics industries. Power dissipation has become an important consideration as performance and area for VLSI Chip design. With shrinking technology reducing power consumption and over all power management on chip are the key challenges below 100nm due to increased complexity. For many designs, optimization of power is important as timing due to the need to reduce package cost and extended battery life. For power management leakage current also plays an important role in low power VLSI   designs. Leakage current is becoming an increasingly important fraction of the total power dissipation of integrated circuits. This paper describes about the various strategies, methodologies and power management techniques for low power circuits and systems. Future challenges that must be met to designs low power high performance circuits are also discussed.


      A Review on Placement of Wavelength Converters in WDM P-Cycle  166-175


      Rupali Agarwal, Rachna Asthana.

ABSTRACT: The p-cycles can be described as preconfigured closed protection paths in a mesh network. Like rings, the protection path is preconnected in advance of any failure and protection capacity is very fast and simple. And like mesh p-cycle offers the high capacity efficiency. The use of wavelength converter in p-cycle enhances the capacity and rapid protection mechanism for mesh-restorable networks. We can trade- off between costs associated with the number of wavelength converters required and the total spare capacity needed for protection. The most important finding is that the number of wave- length converters can be greatly reduced, with placing wavelength converters at the different points between a transparent optical working path layer and a corresponding set of single-wavelength p cycle protection structures. Here we are comparing different techniques named as sparse, partial and sparse-partial wavelength conversion. The main advantages of sparse partial wavelength conversion technique over the full conversion and no conversion are discussed.

  20.       Comparative Analysis and Study of Different QOS Parameters of  176-182
      Wireless Ad-Hoc Network
      Nalin Gahlaut, Jaya sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Kaushal Kumar

ABSTRACT: A wireless Ad-hoc network is a collection of two or more wireless nodes equipped with wireless communications and networking capability. They communicate with each other without the need of centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to routing process. In Ad-hoc scenario, any node can move anytime so these types of networks need to have routing protocol with dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, many protocols have been proposed and developed; these are ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). In this work, we evaluate the performance of proposed Ad-hoc network model in terms of Control traffic received, Control traffic sent, Data traffic received, Data traffic sent, Throughput and number of retransmission attempts to compare above- mentioned commonly used routing protocols. We analyze the simulation results of three different protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks having thirty nodes. For simulation, we use OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool) simulator, which is a discrete event, object-oriented and general purpose network simulator. In our simulation environment, ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol perform better than other two protocols; Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV).

  21.       Design of Wireless Sensor Node and Time Contoured Control  183-187
      Scheme for a Composting Process
      Rahane S.B.

ABSTRACT: This work presents the design of wireless sensor node and a time contoured control scheme for a composting process. The electronic system is designed using Texas Instruments ultra low powered MSP430 microcontroller chip and Cypress semiconductors CYWM6935, 2.4 GHz wireless module. The software makes appropriate use of low power modes of the processor to keep power consumption minimal. The objective is to control temperature of the composting process at desired level and simultaneously monitor it remotely.


      Coverage Based Test Suite Augmentation Techniques-A Survey  188-193

      Bharti Suri, Prabhneet Nayyar

ABSTRACT: Regression testing is the activity of retesting a program so as to ensure that no new errors have been introduced into the previously tested code. However this activity does not involve rerunning the entire test suite but selecting only a few test cases that exercise the changes. Suppose there is a program P and P’ is it’s modified version. The regression test suite so selected must be able to reveal the differences between P and P’ that would help the developer discover errors caused by changes. More and more emphasis has been laid in identifying the regression test suites and ordering them. However, less focus have been laid on the effectiveness of regression test suite in response to changes. While performing regression testing we also need to check whether the existing test suites are sufficient for handling the changes that are introduced. If they are not adequate then providing guidance for creating the new test cases that would be targeting the changed behavior of the program. This problem is called as test suite augmentation. Many test suite augmentation techniques have been proposed in this regard. The main aim of this paper is to explain the concept of test suite augmentation and review the existing techniques based on coverage criteria.

  23.       Difference Based Partial Reconfiguartion  194-197
      R.V. Kshirsagar and S. Sharma

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we address the main aspects of Difference based partial reconfiguration on the Xilinx FPGAs. Difference-based partial reconfiguration is useful for making small on-the-fly changes to design parameters such as logic equations, filter parameters, and I/O standards. Partial reconfiguration is the prerequisite of reconfigurable computing, as it allows time-sharing of physical resources for the execution of multiple design modules. Moreover, partial reconfigurable modules can be swapped in or out on the fly from the operating environment control while other modules in the base design continue functioning without incurring any system downtime. This, results in dramatically increase in speed and functionality of FPGA based system.


      Computational Intelligence in Circuit Synthesis through Evolutionary  198-205

      Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization
      Naveen Singh, Poonam, Hirdesh Chaturvedi, Komal Honey

ABSTRACT: This paper is devoted to the synthesis of combinational logic circuits through computational intelligence or, more precisely, using evolutionary computation techniques. Are studied two evolutionary algorithms, the Genetic and the Memetic Algorithm (GAs, MAs) and one swarm intelligence algorithm, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). GAs are optimization and search techniques based on the principles of genetics and natural selection. MAs are evolutionary algorithms that include a stage of individual optimization as part of its search strategy, being the individual optimization in the form of a local search. The PSO is a population-based search algorithm that starts with a population of random solutions called particles. This paper presents the results for digital circuits design using the three above algorithms. The results show the statistical characteristics of this algorithms with respect to the number of generations required to achieve the solutions. The article analyzes also a new ?tness function that includes an error discontinuity measure, which demonstrated to improve signi?cantly the performance of the algorithm.


      Asynchronous Machine Modeling Using Simulink Fed by PWM Inverter  206-214

      Meenakshi Mataray , Vinay Kakkar

ABSTRACT: The number of industry applications in which induction motors are fed by static frequency inverters is growing fast and, although much has already been done within this field, there is still a lot to be studied/understood regarding such applications. The advance of variable speed drives systems engineering increasingly leads to the need of specific technical guidance provision by electrical machines and drives manufacturers, In this paper we have studied and developed a simulink model with PWM inverter and find out the various characteristics and analysis them.


      Design of High Efficient & Low Power Basic Gates in Subthreshold  215-220


      Sreenivasa Rao Ijjada, Raghavendra Sirigiri, B.S.N.S.P. Kumar,

      V. Malleswara Rao

ABSTRACT: Numerous efforts in balancing the trade off between power, area and performance have been done in the medium performance, medium power region of the design spectrum. However, not much study has been done at the two extreme ends of the design spectrum, namely the ultra low power with acceptable performance at one end, and high performance with power within limit at the other. One solution to achieve the ultra low power requirement is to operate the digital logic gates in subthreshold region. We analyze both CMOS and Pseudo-NMOS logic families operating in subthreshold region. We compare the results with CMOS in normal strong inversion and with other known low power logic, delay.


      Iris Recognition System using a Canny Edge Detection and a Circular  221-228

      Hough Transform

      Naveen Singh, Dilip Gandhi, Krishna Pal Singh

ABSTRACT: A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In this paper, we describe the novel techniques we developed to create an Iris Recognition System, in addition to an analysis of our results. We used a fusion mechanism that amalgamates both, a Canny Edge Detection scheme and a Circular Hough Transform, to detect the iris’ boundaries in the eye’s digital image. We then applied the Haar wavelet in order to extract the deterministic patterns in a person’s iris in the form of a feature vector. By comparing the quantized vectors using the Hamming Distance operator, we determine finally whether two irises are similar. Our results show that our system is quite effective.